Bridge financing is a type of real estate finance used to fill gaps in liquidity, thus the name. When the cash flow from the sale of an asset is anticipated after the cash outlay for the purchase of an asset, typically a bridge loan is requested to maintain liquidity and to cover the initial cash outlay.
There are two different forms of commercial bridge finance; closed bridging and open bridging.
Closed bridge financing describes a finance situation where there is an established date for exit of the bridge financing. The established loan period places less risk on the lender which results in closed bridge loans typically having lower interest rates.
Open bridge financing describes almost the exact opposite scenario. In open bridge financing, the borrower is unable to determine an exact exit date at the time of the loan, typically because the borrower is still looking for a buyer for the initial asset. This places a lot more risk on the lender, thus open bridge loans typically have much higher interest rates.
Hard Asset Loans
Hard asset finance is a method of asset-based lending where a borrower receives funds secured by collateral in the form of a real asset. These loans are similar to bridge loans in their lending criteria and costs to borrower, but they differ in that hard asset loans typically involved a distressed financial situation, often foreclosure or bankruptcy. Since hard asset loans are secured on the value of real assets, far less credit credentials are needed.
Construction loans and development financing refer to a method of financing with terms specially tailored to accommodate real estate assets under development. Since the repayment of the financing may depend on an event that can only occur after the construction, these loans are given special features such as interest reserves and special guidelines to ensure completion of the project.
Commercial mortgage financing is very similar to traditional residential mortgage financing except the collateral is a commercial building or other form of business property as opposed to a home or residential piece of property. In addition, due to different credit requirements in commercial lending, the borrower in most commercial mortgages is a business entity or partnership instead of an individual.